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Qualitative data is data that is not easily reduced to numbers. Qualitative research allows for flexibility and adaptability when undertaking research, so a study can be adapted and tailored in response to emerging issues, problems or trends. It provides the opportunity to collaborate with participants and include them as an active part of the research process.

Qualitative analysis can also be useful for providing a narrative around quantitative data. Quantitative data e.

qualitative data examples

You may then want to use qualitative data e. Qualitative data can be harder to analyse than quantitative data, as the data collected is not inherently objective, and thus can be open to multiple interpretations. Qualitative data is also context-specific, so it is not always possible to use the data to say something about situations outside of that context.

This differs from quantitative analysis, in which a reliable sample can be used to make generalisations about a population. There are numerous qualitative research methods that can be used when conducting qualitative research. These can include but are not restricted to :.

qualitative data examples

More information about different types of qualitative research methods can be found on the Evaluation Resource Hub. The usefulness and appropriateness of different qualitative research methods will vary depending on the context and purpose of the research.

The size of the sample will also vary depending on the context and purpose of the research. Generally, surveys questions that use scales e. Survey questions that allow for free-text responses provide qualitative data. Skip to content Skip to search. Megamenu mobile nav Welcome to education.

Public schools Information about NSW public education, including the school finder, high school enrolment, school safety, selective schools and opportunity classes. Student wellbeing The Wellbeing Framework supports schools to create learning environments that enable students to be healthy, happy, engaged and successful.

Parents and carers Information for parents and carers including learning and wellbeing resources, advice, study skills, a quick guide glossary, homework help, learning from home tools, support for additional needs and more. School Excellence Framework evidence guide. Global Search. Guidelines for using data Introduction to qualitative data.Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Qualitative data is defined as the data that approximates and characterizes.

Qualitative data can be observed and recorded. This data type is non-numerical in nature. This type of data is collected through methods of observations, one-to-one interviews, conducting focus groupsand similar methods.

Qualitative data in statistics is also known as categorical data — data that can be arranged categorically based on the attributes and properties of a thing or a phenomenon. Qualitative data is also called categorical data since this data can be grouped according to categories.

For example, think of a student reading a paragraph from a book during one of the class sessions. A teacher who is listening to the reading gives feedback on how the child read that paragraph. If the teacher gives feedback based on fluency, intonation, throw of words, clarity in pronunciation without giving a grade to the child, this is considered as an example of qualitative data.

Qualitative data does not include numbers in its definition of traits, whereas quantitative data is all about numbers. Quantitative data is any quantifiable information that can be used for mathematical calculation or statistical analysis. This form of data helps in making real-life decisions based on mathematical derivations.

Quantitative data is used to answer questions like how many? How often? How much? This data can be validated and verified. The following are examples of quantitative data. Create a free account.

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Qualitative data is important in determining the particular frequency of traits or characteristics. It allows the statistician or the researchers to form parameters through which larger data sets can be observed. Qualitative data provides the means by which observers can quantify the world around them.

For a market researcher, collecting qualitative data helps in answering questions like, who their customers are, what issues or problems they are facing, and where do they need to focus their attention, so problems or issues are resolved. Qualitative data is about the emotions or perceptions of people, what they feel. In quantitative datathese perceptions and emotions are documented.

It helps the market researchers understand the language their consumers speak and deal with the problem effectively and efficiently. Qualitative data collection is exploratory; it involves in-depth analysis and research. Qualitative data collection methods are mainly focused on gaining insights, reasoning, and motivations; hence they go deeper in terms of research.

Since the qualitative data cannot be measured, researchers prefer methods or data collection tools that are structured to a limited extent.Qualitative data collection process may be assessed through two different points of view—that of the questionnaire and the respondents.

There are different methods of analysis which vary according to the type of data we are investigating. In statistics, there are two main types of data, namely; quantitative data and qualitative data.

qualitative data examples

For the sake of this article, we will be considering one of these two, which is the qualitative data. Qualitative data is a type of data that describes information. It is investigative and also often open-ended, allowing respondents to fully express themselves.

Numbers like national identification number, phone number, etc.

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Examples of qualitative data include sex male or femalename, state of origin, citizenship, etc. A more practical example is a case whereby a teacher gives the whole class an essay that was assessed by giving comments on spelling, grammar, and punctuation rather than score.

Qualitative and Quantitative

Qualitative Data can be divided into two types, namely; Nominal and Ordinal Data. In statistics, nominal data also known as nominal scale is a classification of categorical variables, that do not provide any quantitative value. It is sometimes referred to as labelled or named data.

This is not true in some cases where nominal data takes a quantitative value. However, this quantitative value lacks numeric characteristics. Unlike, interval or ratio data, nominal data cannot be manipulated using available mathematical operators.

For example, a researcher may need to generate a database of the phone numbers and location of a certain number of people. An online survey may be conducted using a closed open-ended question. The best way to collect this data will be through closed open-ended options. The country code will be a closed input option, while the phone number will be open. Thus, ordinal data is a collection of ordinal variable s.

For example, the data collected from asking a question with a Likert scale is ordinal. Other examples of ordinal data include the severity of a software bug critical, high, medium, lowfastness of a runner, hotness of food, etc. In some cases, ordinal data is classified as a quantitative data type or said to be in between qualitative and quantitative. This is because ordinal data exhibit both quantitative and qualitative characteristics.

Various Qualitative data examples are applied in both research and statistics. These examples vary and will, therefore, be separately highlighted below.Qualitative data describes, while quantitative data is expressed using numbers. There are two types of data. Qualitative data is descriptive information about characteristics that are difficult to define or measure or cannot be expressed numerically.

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Quantitative data is numerical information that can be measured or counted. Quantitative data can be expressed as numbers. If you can measure it, it can be expressed as a quantity.

Simple Qualitative Data Examples

If you are conducting an experiment using the scientific method, for example, you want to record your observations and data as thoroughly as possible. You would use both types of data. Qualitative data could include its fur color and the color of its eyes, whether its fur is soft or rough, the sounds it makes, how it smells, whether it seems affectionate or aloof, its health, whether it is young or old. Quantitative data could include its length, weight, number of toes on each paw, how high it can jump, how many ounces of food it eats each data, and its body temperature.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Search for:. Related Posts. Leave a Reply Cancel reply.Words, you guessed? Well, sometimes, yes. Qualitative data exists in the form of interviews, focus groups, or open-ended surveys; or in the interpretation of images, documents and videos. Simply put, qualitative analysis focuses on words, descriptions or ideaswhile quantitative research focuses on numbers.

For a detailed discussion of qual vs quant, check out this post. Not so fast there! In many ways, qualitative data can be incredibly challenging and time-consuming to analyse and interpret.

At the end of your data collection phase e. You may have subtle nuances of interactions or discussions which have danced around in your mind, and which were scribbled down into partial thoughts in messy field notes.

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Then you need to make sense of it all. But how? In this post, we will explore qualitative data analysis at a high level by looking at the general methodological approaches used for dealing with qualitative data. There are many different types of Qualitative Data Analyses, all of which serve different purposes and have unique strengths and weaknesses.

So, how do you choose the right one? Well, selecting the right analysis largely depends on your research question. For example:. In each of these cases, different types of QDA would be suitable. Here, we will look at five of the most popular methodological analyses employed in QDA, and explain where they may prove most valuable.

What are the 5 qualitative analysis methods, you ask? Content analysis is possibly the most common and straightforward type of QDA. It is used to evaluate patterns within the content words, phrases or images or sources of communication, such as from photographs in newspapers through to political speeches.

You could, for instance, identify the frequency with which an idea is shared or spoken about like the number of times a Kardashian is mentioned on Twitter….

Or you could be identifying patterns of deeper underlying interpretations for instance, by identifying phrases or words in tourist pamphlets which highlight India as an ancient country.

qualitative data examples

Because content analysis can be used in such a wide variety of ways, it is important to go into the analysis with a specific question. Large amounts of texts transcribed or original are re-grouped into codes, summarised into categories and themes, and possibly even tabulated.

Because of this, content analysis is one of the more quantitativ-ey and deductive of these QDAs, looking a little more like frequencies numbers of things than other analyses. It is very time consuming requiring lots of reading and re-reading of the texts.Qualitative data is non-numerical data that is produced from qualitative research methods. The following are examples of qualitative data that can be used for analysis in research.

Diary accounts are collected as part of diary studies. Participants record diary entries about their activities or experiences and send these back to the researcher over a period of time.

These can be in the form of videos, text messages, emails, or accounts written on pen and paper. Documents can come in a variety of forms, whether they are public records handbooks, policy outlines, plans, curriculumspersonal documents calendars, emails, logsor physical artifacts handbooks, flyers, posters, agendas. Case studies are studies or investigations of a particular person, or group of people.

Photographs are any images that are captured by camera. These can be photographs taken while in the field, photos taken of a research subject, or of their work or living space, or any other artifacts related to the subject of your research.

Audio recordings can be derived from recordings of in depth interviews, focus groups, or anything recorded during observational studies. They can also be content such as podcasts, newscasts, speeches, or other recorded content. Video recordings can include footage taken from in depth interviews, focus groups, or observational studies. They can also be derived from online video content such as YouTube videos, films, news reports, or videos of events. See film and videos in the library of congress digital collections.

Transcriptions are when you have audio or video recordings and translate the speech into written text form. See our article on how to get interviews transcribed. These can be notes you take while doing an observation or an interview.

Observations include anything that you observe with your 5 senses sight, smell, touch, taste, hearing. It can include defined characteristics such as weight, height, age, appearance, size, etc. Try a free trial or request a demo of the Delve. Examples of Qualitative Data. What is qualitative data? Documents Documents can come in a variety of forms, whether they are public records handbooks, policy outlines, plans, curriculumspersonal documents calendars, emails, logsor physical artifacts handbooks, flyers, posters, agendas See examples from the Achives Library Information Center ALIC Case studies Case studies are studies or investigations of a particular person, or group of people.

Observations Observations include anything that you observe with your 5 senses sight, smell, touch, taste, hearing. LaiYee H October 16, initial codingfirst round coding.Qualitative data is all around you. From the smoothness of your skin to the softness of your hair, qualitative observation data provides a description of how something looks, feels, smells, etc.

View examples of simple qualitative data in everyday life and in research. Get an overview of the language used for qualitative observation. Qualitative data is used to characterize objects or observations. It is observable data that might use your sense of sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing. It does not refer to aspects that can be numbered or measured. Qualitative aspects are subjective and abstract qualities, not objective or concrete factors. Explore several examples of qualitative data:.

Qualitative data is descriptive data like color, taste, texture, smell, etc. Quantitative dataon the other hand, is data that is measurable. Quantitative data of the same milk might discuss there are 3 gallons of milk.

Qualitative Data – Definition, Types, Analysis and Examples

See another example to drive this difference home. Qualitative observations and data can be extremely helpful to research and scientific studies.

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Explore qualitative data used in studies. When making qualitative observations, several different adjectives or adverbs you might use include:. Typically, qualitative data is used alongside quantitative data to make a well-rounded experiment or study. Looking to find out more about research?

Dive into the scientific method examples. Not only will you find out the history but learn how it is used. Qualitative data describing a doughnut. Examples of Qualitative Observations Qualitative data is used to characterize objects or observations. Explore several examples of qualitative data: The skin on her hand was smooth and silky. The cake was black with orange frosting.

The room was bright and airy with blue curtains. The man has brown hair and blue eyes. The boy was a track runner. We noticed that all the donuts with bites were chocolate cake with pink frosting. The lilies had a sweet smell that permeated the mauve room. Fluffy white clouds filled the bright blue sky. The woman had blonde hair with a purple bow. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Data Qualitative data is descriptive data like color, taste, texture, smell, etc.

Qualitative observation : I painted the walls a soft beigeadded drapes of smooth silkplaced vases of sweet-smelling lilies throughout the room, and added thick area rugs to muffle the outside sounds.