# Equality in JavaScript

JavaScript defines 4 different algorithms for determining whether two values are equal:

- Abstract equality:
`==`

- Strict equality:
`===`

- SameValue:
`Object.is()`

- SameValueZero: Same as
`Object.is`

, except`-0`

is considered equal to`+0`

.

## Strict Equality, SameValueZero, SameValue

Strict equality, SameValueZero, and SameValue are almost equivalent. They only differ in their handling of `NaN`

,
`+0`

, and `-0`

. For all other values, the last 3 algorithms are identical.

**Strict Equality:** `NaN`

is not strictly equal to any value, not even itself. In other words, `NaN !== NaN`

. Also, `(+0) === (-0)`

.

**SameValue:** The `Object.is()`

function implements the SameValue algorithm. With the SameValue algorithm, `NaN`

is equal to itself: `Object.is(NaN, NaN) === true`

. But, on the other hand, `+0`

is not equal to `-0`

: `Object.is(+0, -0) === false`

.

**SameValueZero:** There's no way to use SameValueZero directly, but the `Array#includes()`

method uses SameValueZero internally. So, to try out SameValueZero, you can use `includes()`

. The only difference between SameValue and SameValueZero is that SameValueZero treats `+0`

as equal to `-0`

: `[+0].includes(-0) === true`

.

As a developer, you should typically use `===`

, with the understanding that you may need to add a special case if
you care about `NaN`

. The distinction between `+0`

and `-0`

is not important for most use cases.

## Abstract Equality

Abstract equality has numerous differences. The abstract equality algorithm supports several implicit type conversions. Here's a brief overview:

- If
`x`

and`y`

are the same type, check if`x === y`

. - If
`x`

and`y`

are both either`null`

or`undefined`

, return`true`

. - If
`x`

is a number and`y`

is a string, convert`y`

to a number and then compare using`===`

. Similarly, if`x`

is a boolean or string, and`y`

is a number, convert`x`

to a number. - If
`x`

or`y`

is a boolean, convert the other value of a number and compare them. - If
`x`

is an object and`y`

is a symbol, string, or number, try to convert`x`

to a primitive using valueOf() and then compare using`===`

.

In general, you should **not** use abstract equality. The one potential exception is checking for nullish values:

```
// Only true if `v === null` or `v === undefined`
v == null;
// Equivalent:
v === null || v === undefined;
```

ESLint has a rule to disallow == unless the right hand side is null.

## Where These Equality Comparisons Are Used

The tricky part of these different equality comparisons is that different JavaScript methods use different
equality algorithms internally. For example, the `Array#indexOf()`

function uses strict equality, but `Array#includes()`

uses SameValueZero, which leads to different behavior when searching for `NaN`

in arrays:

```
[NaN].indexOf(NaN); // -1, not found!
[NaN].includes(NaN); // true, found!
```

Here's where these different equality comparisons are used:

- Strict Equality:
`indexOf()`

,`lastIndexOf`

,`case`

statements. - SameValueZero:
`Set`

values,`Map`

keys,`includes()`

. - SameValue: Used internally by
`Object.defineProperty()`

.

## More Fundamentals Tutorials

- How to Use JavaScript's `Promise.allSettled()` Function
- How to Sort an Array by Date in JavaScript
- How to Trim Characters from a String in JavaScript
- How to Compare Dates Without Time in JavaScript
- Using `map()` on JavaScript Enums
- How to Print An Enum's Properties in JavaScript
- How to Reverse a String in JavaScript